Two Topiary Gardens


On my return journey to Scotland from our trip to the Cotswolds in September (see my write-ups on Snowshill and Hidcote), I stopped off at Levens Hall in Cumbria on the recommendation of my mother. Levens Hall has the oldest and most extensive topiary garden in the world, and since topiary is my spirit garden style, a coffee and wander around its extraordinary collection of clipped yews made for a magical break in the six-hour journey.

The topiary garden of Levens Hall was laid out in 1694 and completed in 1720, and it is the oldest such surviving garden, having escaped the destruction that its contemporaries suffered when the fashion for informal landscape gardens waxed in the eighteenth century.




Many of the ancient shapes, which are clipped from yew, golden yew and box, have names: Queen Elizabeth and her maids of honour, the Judge’s wig, the Lion, the Jug of Morocco. Summer bedding plants, including masses of heliotropes and verbena, are grown in between the trees, bordered by dwarf box hedges.



Isn’t there something utterly mysterious about a topiary garden? Perhaps it is because of the aloof, animal bulk of the trees, standing like inscrutable statues in a museum (but which surely come alive behind your back); or perhaps because of childhood books like Elizabeth Goudge’s The Little White Horse in which an orphan is driven through a moonlit park adorned with topiaried chess pieces: an atmosphere of magical suspense pervades. The wonkiness of the spirals and twirls of Levens’ yew trees, some looking like toppling wedding cakes, others dumpy yet dignified, somehow added to the sense of enigma. Feeling as though I’d stumbled into a convention of eccentric butlers or an eighteenth-century Ent Moot, I wandered like a small intruder among a gloriously claustrophobic crowd of other-worldly presences.




It takes four gardeners about a month to clip all the shapes, and they were undertaking this gargantuan task during my visit, meaning that some of the trees were bowling-green smooth, while others were still fuzzy around the edges. And talking of bowling greens, I wandered further on to find that the topiary thinned out and the rest of the garden came into view. A real bowling green, used by a local croquet club, lay beyond an orchard (particularly boggy underfoot – bring stout boots) and next to a dark and ominous beech alley, which led to a wilder part of the garden that was partly wooded and contained a willow maze with a curious centrepiece.





The fountain garden, containing a large, round, stone pool full of lilies and a modest fountain at its centre, was laid out in 1994 to commemorate 300 years of the gardens at Levens Hall. Returning towards the house was the herb garden, herbaceous borders, and finally the simple but pleasing 17th Century Garden beside the house itself.



Due to life’s continual gyre of obligations, distractions and circumstances, it has taken me over three months to get round to writing this post, and as I was editing the photos of these remarkable 300-year-old trees I recalled that I had not shared my photographs of another magnificent topiary garden that I visited over two years ago: Drummond Castle Gardens in Perthshire. I do hope you will not mind if I indulge my admiration for topiary a little longer and show you this quite different garden.

Drummond Castle Gardens also has a long history, having been restructured several times. Grander in style and scale than Levens Hall, there is less a sense of the whimsical and more of a stylised majesty in the formal parterre, laid out in a St Andrew’s Cross with a seventeenth century sundial at its centre. Topiaried beech and yew trees are solemn stalagmites, politely spaced, and contrasting in height and colour with the collection of gorgeous ruby-red acers nearby.




Drummond is magnificent for autumn colour, and our visit, in October, was at the perfect time to witness the spectacle. Relatively little herbaceous planting exists in this part of the garden, but there is more than enough interest to be found among the many types of trees (two copper beeches were planted by Queen Victoria who visited in 1842), in the disciplined structure of the planting, the elegant statuary, and in the peacocks that waft gracefully about the lawns.



Being Perthshire, there is no shortage of dampness in the air, and many of the trees were adorned with delightful lichen that added to the sense of timelessness. Exploring further on, we stumbled across beds and beds of the most exuberant dahlias, while just below the castle were herbaceous beds rich in late summer colour.


Levens Hall Gardens near Kendal in Cumbria are open from April to October on Sundays to Thursdays, and adult admission is £9.90, or £13.90 to include admission to the house, with lower prices for children and family groups.

Drummond Castle Gardens near Crieff in Perthshire is open on Easter Weekend, and then daily between May and October inclusive. Entry for an adult costs £6.00 with reduced rates for concessions, families and children. The castle itself is not open to the public.


25 thoughts on “Two Topiary Gardens

  1. Wonderful photography – thanks for the tour of these two wonderful gardens. I’ve visited Levens, but not Drummond. I’d say you’re right to prioritise visiting gardens in season and write them up whenever you get around to it.

  2. I wouldn’t want a formal garden myself, but I do admire the work that goes into creating and maintaining one. Knot gardens, parterres and topiary shapes are fascinating. There are some nice examples in the Cotswolds at Bourton House Garden near Moreton-in-Marsh if you are ever back there again. Drummond must be one of the best though and I was lucky to visit in September last year when it was looking gorgeous in its autumn dress. Thanks for the tours Joanna.
    Jude xx

    1. I agree Jude – the work involved in a garden like this must be pretty onerous. Formal gardens suit some places better than others. Our front garden (in a sweep of uniform Victorian tenements) fits the formal scheme perfectly, but formality would look pretentious outside a modern house, where more naturalistic planting might work better. I’ll bear Bourton House Garden in mind if I’m ever in the area again, although I do recall visiting an extraordinary maze in those parts a few years back. I wonder if that was it?

  3. Thank you for the excellent photos, and descriptions of these gardens. I love looking round formal gardens like this and can well imagine the amount of work required to keep them looking crisp around the edges 😉 I’ve heard of Levens and I’ve been meaning to go the next time we’re in the Lakes (it’s not that far from Salford) but hopefully I trip to Scotland next year means I can sneak a visit to Drummond castle. Love bec x

  4. Beautiful photos Joanna, and a lovely written review of both gardens too. I do feel that same sense of mystery in the first one and, like you say, imagine these forms may come to life behind your back or on a moonlit summer’s night! I could quite imagine living in Levens Hall with that wonderful garden (the hare in the maze is lovely!) and it is going on my list now, as I would like (one day in the unplanned future!) to spend a week or two in the UK just visiting gardens!

  5. I’ve so looked forward to seeing these pictures, and they are well worth the wait. I keep going back and back to see them again.

  6. I love formal and topiary gardens, yet I’ve never visited Levens Hall, you’ve reminded me to add it to my days out list for next year. They truly are gardens for the patient gardener, I’m not sure I am 🙂

  7. Passing Levens Hall as we tootle up the M6 and back at least twice a year I keep meaning to make the detour but the timing has never been quite right ( we are probably passing it before it is open on the way up and after it has closed on the way down. Seeing your pictures makes me want to go even more. I was thinking ‘Alice in Wonderland’ for some reason as I saw them, so you mentioning The Little White Horse surprised me and I must go back and read that again (it’s on my bookshelf!) as what you said din’t ring a bell at all – probably last read it a VERY long time ago! Wonderful photos and worth waiting for… 😉 ps how are your own topiary plans going…?

    1. Well you absolutely must go to Levens Cathy – well worth an early start. How interesting you thought of Alice. Although I know Through the Looking Glass well, I have a sneaking, guilty suspicion that I have never read the proper version of Wonderland (we had an abridged young children’s pop-up version at home). Perhaps one for me to catch up on. Was it full of topiary? My own topiary will be a work in progress for a while…

      1. Do you know, I will have to reread it too because I couldn’t think specifically why the topiary reminded me of it – just that it did! I am thinking chess pieces, possibly… Yes, I will definitely look into the times for visiting Levens – we could of course stay overnight in the campervan on the way up, but my Mum never thinks we are there long enough as it is!

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